The Moldvay BX book says that Neanderthals are led by 10' tall male and female Neanderthals, that are not actually Neanderthals - they're from a similar, larger race. And they're chosen to be the leaders by the Neanderthals themselves! I'm going to call them Uberthals. I'm thinking that the Uberthals must live apart in the wilds, then the Neanderthal clan sends some envoys out to where the Uberthals are hanging out in the big and tall shop, and the envoys appeal to them with gifts and honeyed words to send a pair of Uberthals to come and be their new leaders. Or something. It's such a throwaway line, yet implies so much about the Neanderthal world.
Does anyone with a wider grasp of pulp literature know from whence came the idea of 10' tall super-sized Neanderthals leading the regular-sized Neanderthals? Another reason why I think of Moldvay BX as the beloved edition.